What is a cheek augmentation procedure?
The cheek extends superiorly to the zygomatic arch, posteriorly to the ear, inferiorly to the margin of the mandible, and anteriorly to the corner of the mouth. It can be divided into 4 major topographic areas: the zygomatic, buccal, infra-orbital, and parotid-masseteric regions. These fleshy areas are innervated by the buccal nerve and a major portion of facial fat tissue—known as the malar fat pad—is located underneath the cheeks. The fat pads help to give healthy and fuller appearance to the cheeks. Unfortunately, ageing usually causes a deterioration of the volumising fat pads, resulting in drooping cheeks, a sagging jawline, undefined cheekbones, and even sunken cheeks. If left uncorrected, these aesthetic issues could give an inaccurate perception of one’s age. Patients can undergo a cheek augmentation procedure to effectively improve the shape of their cheeks.
How are the cheeks augmented?
Patients who are displayin ...
What is a moisturizer?
The skin is able to perform its various functions—regulating body temperature, maintaining the balance of fluids, protecting the body from pathogen invasion, and sensing stimuli—when its structure is well-regulated. Another important factor of skin health is the protective barrier layer. This layer, which is found on the outermost level of the skin, is made of dead and keratinised cells embedded in the epidermal lipids. This barrier layer is then covered by a hydrolipid film which also consists of the acid mantle. The protective barrier layer will then help to repel water, harmful irritants, and infectious agents. While the skin usually self-regulates itself via the desquamation process, skincare products will help to improve the health and functionality of skin. One very important skincare product is moisturizer, which is intended to make the external layer of the skin well-protected, softer, and more pliable.
What are the different types of moi ...
What is collagen vascular disease?
Connective tissue is one of the four basic types of tissues found in the body, with an extensive extracellular matrix. Cells of connective tissue include mast cells, macrophages, leucocytes, fibroblasts, and adipocytes. Connective tissue is vital for supporting and protecting various internal organs. Unfortunately, when the body’s own immune system attacks these connective tissues, patients will then be diagnosed with collagen vascular disease—sometimes known as connective tissue disease. Collagen vascular disease can also happen when a patient inherits a defective gene that result in weakened or inflamed connective tissues.
What are the types of collagen vascular disease?
Collagen vascular disease can be categorised into two major types which are inherited connective tissue disorders and autoimmune connective tissue disorders. The former occurs when patients inherit mutated genes from their parents; some examples of inherited connec ...