What is the anatomy of the lips?
Not only are the lips responsible for eating, they are also very important for proper speech articulation and numerous facial expressions. Compared to other parts of the face which could consist of up to 16 layers of skin, the lips are only made of a meagre 3 to 5 layers of skin. The very thin layer of skin combined with extensive network of blood supply as well as nerve cells underneath contribute to the heightened tactile sensation of the lips. The lips are also a vital erogenous zone, which plays a huge role in intimacy.
What are the common lip deformities faced by patients?
While the shape and size of lips are directly influenced by genetics, lifestyle habits and ethnicity, they can also fluctuate based on age. Most patients notice that their lips thin as they grow older and this could be due to the fact that the ageing process cause a sharp decline in the repair and growth of numerous cells (e.g. hyaluronic acid, collagen, etc.) in the lips. ...
What are fine lines under eyes?
Fine lines refer to superficial lines visible on the skin. Most often than not, they appear as the skin loses elasticity over time. These types of lines are better known as static lines because they are still apparent even when the face is at rest. The area under the eyes—also known as tear trough—has the thinnest layer of skin (<1mm) in the human body. It is then very prone to injuries and premature ageing, which manifests as fine lines, darkness, and hollowness.
What are the causes of fine lines under eyes?
Usually, fine lines under the eyes happen as a result of biological ageing exacerbated by external aggressors. Genetics play a huge part in signaling ageing and its accompanying consequences such as reduced production and repair of cells. In fact, the cells are weaker and become more susceptible to damages caused by external aggressors like ultraviolet (UV) rays, smoking, pollution, harsh weather and unhealthy diet. These aggr ...
What is lidocaine (xylocaine, lignocaine)?
Lidocaine is a type of medication that is used to induce temporary numbness in localised areas in preparation for medical procedures. This is an amide-type anaesthetic agent is sometimes referred to as xylocaine or lignocaine.
How are pain sensations produced by the body?
Pain can be caused by a myriad of factors and nociceptors are differentiated based on the type of stimuli that they detect. These include thermal, mechanical, and chemical. Silent pain receptors are activated when there is any inflammation or tissue injuries. Following exposure to harmful stimuli (e.g. heat, incisions that break the skin’s surface, corrosive chemicals, etc.), tissues become damaged and appropriate pain receptors get activated. Electrical signals are then generated and propagated along the nerve cells to the spinal cord and the brain for processing. These pain sensations will then quickly alert the body of dangerous situations and prevent further ...