Cumulative effects of ageing create several changes to facial characteristics. Sagging skin is 1 of the many undesirable signs of ageing; together with atrophy and wrinkles, they form the ageing trilogy. The lower face and the neck are the areas where sagging skin is more predominant. Sagging in the neck manifests as loss of tension and tone and is due to loss of elasticity.
Causes of Sagging Skin
Intrinsic ageing is a natural part of the ageing process and it includes significant reduction in the production of collagen and elastin. These 2 structural proteins provide support and flexibility to connective tissues. Elastin, in particular, allows the skin to spring back into shape when stretched.
Some people are just predisposed to sagging skin. If you have family members that are prone to lines, wrinkles, and sagging skin at a younger age, there’s a chance that you will suffer the same problems.
The damaging rays from the sun can increase th ...
What is Prilocaine?
Prilocaine is an amino amide type of local anaesthetic with a fast onset of action. It is pharmacologically similar to lidocaine and both can be combined for topical application (Emla cream) prior to a dermal filler injection. Although both are equally safe and effective anaesthetics, prilocaine’s onset of action is slower than lidocaine. However, the former is excreted more rapidly and has lower cardiotoxicity. Lidocaine is widely used in the US, while European countries seem to prefer Prilocaine.
Mechanism of Action
Amide-type local anaesthetics like prilocaine and lidocaine relieve pain by interfering with nerve excitation and conduction. It works by blocking sodium (Na+) current through direct interaction with voltage-gated Na+ channels. The injectable form of prilocaine is often used in dentistry, while a combination of lidocaine and prilocaine is also formulated in topical preparation for dermal anaesthesia. It is rapidly metabolised in the liver a ...
What is cervical dystonia?
Cervical dystonia (CD) is the most common form of focal dystonia characterised by sustained or intermittent muscle contraction that leads to abnormal movements and posture. There is no known cure for CD, but multiple treatments are available to relieve symptoms. The choice of treatment depends on the cause of the dystonia and the muscles involved.
Botox injections for cervical dystonia
Botox is a prescription medication containing botulinum neurotoxin A that is injected into muscles to treat cervical dystonia in adults. Other ingredients include human albumin and sodium chloride. The safety of Botox for this indication has not been established for pregnant and lactating patients. Patients who are allergic to other botulinum toxin type A products (Xeomin, Myobloc, and Dysport) should not receive this treatment. Patients with existing neuromuscular conditions such as Lou Gehrig’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, myasthenia gra ...