What is a polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA) injectable filler?
Polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA) is a type of purely synthetic polymer derived from acrylic and sold under the trade name of Perspex or Plexiglas. Also known as acrylic or acrylic glass, this polymer is extensively used in industrial applications (e.g. roofing, windows) due to its high resistance to extreme temperature fluctuations. Nowadays, the usage of PMMA has even branched out into biomedical applications (e.g. bone cement and dermal fillers), as it is biodegradable. Following dermal implantation during aesthetic procedure, PMMA particles increase natural collagen proliferation resulting in plumped up skin creases. ArteFill® is composed of PMMA microspheres suspended in bovine collagen.
What are the benefits of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) injectable fillers?
The benefit of choosing PMMA-based injectable fillers for correcting skin issues (e.g. medium to deep-set wrinkles, nasolabial folds, pitted scars etc.) is t ...
Intra-articular hyaluronic acid injections are a minimally invasive surgical procedure to treat pain and inflammation associated with arthritis, particularly osteoarthritis of the knee. The procedure may also be referred to as viscosupplementation, a process that aims to restore the physiological and rheological state of the joint tissues. Intra-articular therapy, being an invasive procedure, requires strict aseptic technique.
Normal joint function is maintained by the synovial membrane and synovial fluid, which nourishes the chondrocytes and eliminates matrix degradation and metabolites. HA is produced in the synovial lining cells to help protect and maintain the articular cartilage. The clinical symptoms experienced by osteoarthritic patients are due to the inflammation of the synovium. Intra-articular injection decreases pain, discomfort, stiffness, and other OA symptoms, allowing extensive movement of the joint.
How does hyaluronic acid injection work?
The exact mechanism of ...
The use of Botox is only FDA-approved for treating glabellar lines, also known as the 11 lines, between the eyebrows. It is not illegal to use it in other areas, though, such as in the forehead and facial areas that are prone to dynamic expression lines. Physicians may use it off-label to treat other areas, as long as they are trained and licensed to inject botulinum neurotoxin. Patients who seek treatment for the horizontal lines in their forehead would often ask for additional injections in their glabellar lines.
The broad muscle that extends above the brows to the hairline is called the frontalis muscle. It is the muscle responsible in elevating the brows. A skilled physician must adjust his or her technique to suit the patient’s anatomy and goals. People may have a slightly different contraction of their frontalis. That’s why wrinkles in this area may look different from person to person.
How Many Units of Botox are Needed for Forehead Wrinkles?
There is no standar ...