Intra-articular hyaluronic acid injections are a minimally invasive surgical procedure to treat pain and inflammation associated with arthritis, particularly osteoarthritis of the knee. The procedure may also be referred to as viscosupplementation, a process that aims to restore the physiological and rheological state of the joint tissues. Intra-articular therapy, being an invasive procedure, requires strict aseptic technique.
Normal joint function is maintained by the synovial membrane and synovial fluid, which nourishes the chondrocytes and eliminates matrix degradation and metabolites. HA is produced in the synovial lining cells to help protect and maintain the articular cartilage. The clinical symptoms experienced by osteoarthritic patients are due to the inflammation of the synovium. Intra-articular injection decreases pain, discomfort, stiffness, and other OA symptoms, allowing extensive movement of the joint.
How does hyaluronic acid injection work?
The exact mechanism of ...
The use of Botox is only FDA-approved for treating glabellar lines, also known as the 11 lines, between the eyebrows. It is not illegal to use it in other areas, though, such as in the forehead and facial areas that are prone to dynamic expression lines. Physicians may use it off-label to treat other areas, as long as they are trained and licensed to inject botulinum neurotoxin. Patients who seek treatment for the horizontal lines in their forehead would often ask for additional injections in their glabellar lines.
The broad muscle that extends above the brows to the hairline is called the frontalis muscle. It is the muscle responsible in elevating the brows. A skilled physician must adjust his or her technique to suit the patient’s anatomy and goals. People may have a slightly different contraction of their frontalis. That’s why wrinkles in this area may look different from person to person.
How Many Units of Botox are Needed for Forehead Wrinkles?
There is no standar ...
What is Restylane?
Restylane is a brand of dermal fillers designed and produced by Q-Med. This brand is well known for its active ingredient—non-animal stabilized hyaluronic Acid (NASHA)—used across its wide range of products. The hyaluronic acid is harvested from fermenting bacterial cultures and purified to be free from disease-causing contaminants.
The range includes:
Restylane Skinboosters: This collection of homogenised aesthetic solutions is intended to boost exhausted and dehydrated skin via biorevitalization process.
Restylane Lyps: As the name suggests, this filler is perfect for plumping and sculpting the lips.
Restylane: This filler is made of intermediate sized NASHA particles, perfect for treating moderate wrinkles.
Restylane Lyft: The fillers in this collection contain large NASHA particles to volumise more severe facial creases like nasogenian furrows as well as hollowed regions.
Restylane SubQ: This class of implants contains the large ...