The face is the most important means to convey expression; a way to indicate outwardly how we are feeling inside. Facial movement requires muscle motion beneath the skin. These facial movements often cause what is known as temporary, transient dynamic wrinkles to form in the skin—smiling, for instance, creates lines around the eyes and deepens the nasolabial folds. In young, elastic skin, the wrinkles disappear after making the movement. However, when combined with other factors that predispose the skin to wrinkle formation, facial expressions, like smiling, laughing, and frowning, can in fact cause persistence of or increase the severity of wrinkles. Some factors that contribute to wrinkle formation include age, ultraviolet radiation exposure, as well as intrinsic biological factors such as muscle atrophy and fat loss.
What are smile lines?
Common types of wrinkles known to arise from repeated muscle motion usually have colloquial names that come from the facial expression t ...
What are chronic migraines?
Chronic migraines are a debilitating and painful condition defined as having headaches at a frequency of more than 15 headache days a month over a 3-month period, with the headaches lasting 4 hours a day or longer. Chronic migraine sufferers experience a decrease in productivity because they are often absent more from work, school, and social or leisure activities (as they are usually incapacitated for a lengthy period), significantly impacting their quality of life.
Botox (BTX) injections and migraines
The discovery that Botox (a brand name of botulinum toxin type A) is effective for treating migraines was accidental. Patients receiving BTX treatment for forehead wrinkles started noticing an improvement in their headaches as well. This was explored further in clinical trials which suggested that BTX treatment may be beneficial for sufferers of a particular type of headache, i.e. those afflicted with chronic migraines. Based on these results, as well a ...
Hyaluronic acid dermal fillers are the most common type of filler used, making up 92% of all dermal filler treatments in the United States. Widely used as a biomaterial, hyaluronic acid is valued for its biocompatibility, established safety profile, and excellent clinical performance.
What is cross-linking?
In its natural form, hyaluronic acid is rapidly turned over in the body, as such it has a short half-life of 24–48 hours in tissue. This makes hyaluronic acid, at first glance, a poor choice to be used as a dermal filler. To overcome this limitation however, the hyaluronic acid in most dermal fillers are stabilized by cross-linking the long linear hyaluronic acid chains with other compounds such as 1,4-butanedioldiglycidyl ether (BDDE) and suspended in a physiological or phosphate-buffered solution. This popular compound is used by Restylane, Belotero, and Juvederm.
The product is then processed either as a homogeneous gel or a suspension of particles in gel carriers. ...