What are chronic migraines?
Chronic migraines are a debilitating and painful condition defined as having headaches at a frequency of more than 15 headache days a month over a 3-month period, with the headaches lasting 4 hours a day or longer. Chronic migraine sufferers experience a decrease in productivity because they are often absent more from work, school, and social or leisure activities (as they are usually incapacitated for a lengthy period), significantly impacting their quality of life.
Botox (BTX) injections and migraines
The discovery that Botox (a brand name of botulinum toxin type A) is effective for treating migraines was accidental. Patients receiving BTX treatment for forehead wrinkles started noticing an improvement in their headaches as well. This was explored further in clinical trials which suggested that BTX treatment may be beneficial for sufferers of a particular type of headache, i.e. those afflicted with chronic migraines. Based on these results, as well a ...
Hyaluronic acid dermal fillers are the most common type of filler used, making up 92% of all dermal filler treatments in the United States. Widely used as a biomaterial, hyaluronic acid is valued for its biocompatibility, established safety profile, and excellent clinical performance.
What is cross-linking?
In its natural form, hyaluronic acid is rapidly turned over in the body, as such it has a short half-life of 24–48 hours in tissue. This makes hyaluronic acid, at first glance, a poor choice to be used as a dermal filler. To overcome this limitation however, the hyaluronic acid in most dermal fillers are stabilized by cross-linking the long linear hyaluronic acid chains with other compounds such as 1,4-butanedioldiglycidyl ether (BDDE) and suspended in a physiological or phosphate-buffered solution. This popular compound is used by Restylane, Belotero, and Juvederm.
The product is then processed either as a homogeneous gel or a suspension of particles in gel carriers. ...
What are Calcium Hydroxylapatite Fillers?
Calcium Hydroxylapatite has been used in the field of aesthetics for more than a decade; ever since the first calcium hydroxylapatite filler, Radiesse, was approved for use in European markets in 2003. Throughout this time, this brand has remained popular amongst both doctors and clients alike due to its natural-looking and durable results, versatility, and outstanding volumising properties that make it ideal for correcting age-related aesthetic defects.
What is calcium hydroxylapatite?
Calcium hydroxylapatite is a mineral that naturally occurs in human teeth and bone. As such, it is biodegradable, biocompatible and non-antigenic. In Radiesse, the material is formed into microspheres that are suspended in aqueous gel that has the optimal physical properties needed for lifting and plumping the skin.
How do these fillers work?
This calcium hydroxylapatite filler is injected into the subcutis to restore facial volume and correct skin depres ...