Hyaluronic acid dermal fillers are the most common type of filler used, making up 92% of all dermal filler treatments in the United States. Widely used as a biomaterial, hyaluronic acid is valued for its biocompatibility, established safety profile, and excellent clinical performance.
What is cross-linking?
In its natural form, hyaluronic acid is rapidly turned over in the body, as such it has a short half-life of 24–48 hours in tissue. This makes hyaluronic acid, at first glance, a poor choice to be used as a dermal filler. To overcome this limitation however, the hyaluronic acid in most dermal fillers are stabilized by cross-linking the long linear hyaluronic acid chains with other compounds such as 1,4-butanedioldiglycidyl ether (BDDE) and suspended in a physiological or phosphate-buffered solution. This popular compound is used by Restylane, Belotero, and Juvederm.
The product is then processed either as a homogeneous gel or a suspension of particles in gel carriers. ...
What are Calcium Hydroxylapatite Fillers?
Calcium Hydroxylapatite has been used in the field of aesthetics for more than a decade; ever since the first calcium hydroxylapatite filler, Radiesse, was approved for use in European markets in 2003. Throughout this time, this brand has remained popular amongst both doctors and clients alike due to its natural-looking and durable results, versatility, and outstanding volumising properties that make it ideal for correcting age-related aesthetic defects.
What is calcium hydroxylapatite?
Calcium hydroxylapatite is a mineral that naturally occurs in human teeth and bone. As such, it is biodegradable, biocompatible and non-antigenic. In Radiesse, the material is formed into microspheres that are suspended in aqueous gel that has the optimal physical properties needed for lifting and plumping the skin.
How do these fillers work?
This calcium hydroxylapatite filler is injected into the subcutis to restore facial volume and correct skin depres ...
What are the common under-eye concerns?
The tear trough area refers to the region underneath the eyes that radiates outwards and downwards from the inner corner of the eyes. Periorbital tissues in its anatomically correct positions ensure that this area is constantly smooth without a distinct transition point. More often than not, factors like ageing, dehydration, exhaustion, and genetics can alter the tissues resulting in common aesthetic concerns like dark circles, hollows, and puffiness. When the tissues are lost, the skin tends to sink in and cause hollows. Not only that, a lack of fat pads makes the underlying muscles and blood vessels very prominent, resulting in dark circles underneath the eyes. Some patients may experience puffy eye bags when the same periorbital tissues are displaced from its anatomical position.
What are the usual treatments for eye bags and hollows?
Before spending time, money, and effort on expensive treatments, patients should first amend some of the ...