What is hypopigmentation?
Melanocytes, the factories that produce natural pigments, are distributed at the base of the epidermis. These pigment cells release protein melanin continuously. This protein structure is carried by keratinocytes to the superficial surface of the skin, which will eventually determine one’s skin, hair, and eye colour. A dark-skinned person simply has more melanin compared to a person who is fair-skinned. While the pigmentation of the skin is usually influenced by one’s racial origin, the amount of sunlight exposure can also alter the skin pigmentation. The skin pigmentation and its response to ultraviolet (UV) rays can be classified based on the Fitzpatrick scale. Unfortunately, one’s skin pigmentation can be affected when the normal synthesis of melanin gets altered. One such skin pigmentation disorder is hypopigmentation; it is a skin disease that is marked by a distinctive loss of pigments in the skin, resulting in patches of skin that a ...
What is a cheek augmentation procedure?
The cheek extends superiorly to the zygomatic arch, posteriorly to the ear, inferiorly to the margin of the mandible, and anteriorly to the corner of the mouth. It can be divided into 4 major topographic areas: the zygomatic, buccal, infra-orbital, and parotid-masseteric regions. These fleshy areas are innervated by the buccal nerve and a major portion of facial fat tissue—known as the malar fat pad—is located underneath the cheeks. The fat pads help to give healthy and fuller appearance to the cheeks. Unfortunately, ageing usually causes a deterioration of the volumising fat pads, resulting in drooping cheeks, a sagging jawline, undefined cheekbones, and even sunken cheeks. If left uncorrected, these aesthetic issues could give an inaccurate perception of one’s age. Patients can undergo a cheek augmentation procedure to effectively improve the shape of their cheeks.
How are the cheeks augmented?
Patients who are displayin ...
What is collagen vascular disease?
Connective tissue is one of the four basic types of tissues found in the body, with an extensive extracellular matrix. Cells of connective tissue include mast cells, macrophages, leucocytes, fibroblasts, and adipocytes. Connective tissue is vital for supporting and protecting various internal organs. Unfortunately, when the body’s own immune system attacks these connective tissues, patients will then be diagnosed with collagen vascular disease—sometimes known as connective tissue disease. Collagen vascular disease can also happen when a patient inherits a defective gene that result in weakened or inflamed connective tissues.
What are the types of collagen vascular disease?
Collagen vascular disease can be categorised into two major types which are inherited connective tissue disorders and autoimmune connective tissue disorders. The former occurs when patients inherit mutated genes from their parents; some examples of inherited connec ...