What is collagen vascular disease?
Connective tissue is one of the four basic types of tissues found in the body, with an extensive extracellular matrix. Cells of connective tissue include mast cells, macrophages, leucocytes, fibroblasts, and adipocytes. Connective tissue is vital for supporting and protecting various internal organs. Unfortunately, when the body’s own immune system attacks these connective tissues, patients will then be diagnosed with collagen vascular disease—sometimes known as connective tissue disease. Collagen vascular disease can also happen when a patient inherits a defective gene that result in weakened or inflamed connective tissues.
What are the types of collagen vascular disease?
Collagen vascular disease can be categorised into two major types which are inherited connective tissue disorders and autoimmune connective tissue disorders. The former occurs when patients inherit mutated genes from their parents; some examples of inherited connec ...
What are under eye wrinkles?
As the name suggests, under-eye wrinkles refer to the tiny skin creases that appear in the area under the eyes. This tear trough region, which extends outwards and downwards from the inner corner of the eye is exceptionally thin at less than 1mm, is very delicate and prone to developing various premature ageing signs like fine lines, darkness, puffiness, and hollowness. If left untreated, it could result in the inaccurate perception of one’s age and cosmetic problems like the unattractive creasing of makeup under the eyes.
How is dermal filler used to smoothen under eye wrinkles?
Although patients often turn to eye creams to improve the appearance of under-eye wrinkles, these skincare products typically take some time to even deliver results and may not work for everyone. Nowadays, patients can opt for dermal filler injections in the tear trough area, so that the wrinkles can be easily erased. Many soft tissue implants are made o ...
What is Botox?
Botox is a muscle relaxing medicine that is formulated by Allergan Pharmaceuticals. This neuromuscular paralytic agent is made of botulinum toxin and excipients (human albumin and sodium chloride) that are extracted from the Hall strain of Clostridium botulinum left to ferment with glucose, casein hydrolysate, and yeast extract. Once isolated and purified, the toxin is vacuum-dried and sterilised to create a white powder that must be reconstituted with sterile, preservative-free saline solution (9mg/mL sodium chloride solution) prior to intramuscular administration. The prepared botulinum toxin solution must be transparent, free from any suspending particles, and with a colourless to slight yellowish hue.
How is Botox used to treat crow’s feet?
Due to its potent muscle relaxing activity, Botox is used in the medical field to relax painfully contracting muscles such as cervical dystonia, hemifacial spasms, and limb spasticity. But, it is most well-known as a p ...