What is lidocaine (xylocaine, lignocaine)?
Lidocaine is a type of medication that is used to induce temporary numbness in localised areas in preparation for medical procedures. This is an amide-type anaesthetic agent is sometimes referred to as xylocaine or lignocaine.
How are pain sensations produced by the body?
Pain can be caused by a myriad of factors and nociceptors are differentiated based on the type of stimuli that they detect. These include thermal, mechanical, and chemical. Silent pain receptors are activated when there is any inflammation or tissue injuries. Following exposure to harmful stimuli (e.g. heat, incisions that break the skin’s surface, corrosive chemicals, etc.), tissues become damaged and appropriate pain receptors get activated. Electrical signals are then generated and propagated along the nerve cells to the spinal cord and the brain for processing. These pain sensations will then quickly alert the body of dangerous situations and prevent further ...
What is an under-eye hollow?
The under-eye area—also known as the tear trough—is the region extending downwards and outwards from the inner corner of the eye. The skin in this region is very delicate as it consists of a very thin layer of skin at just <1mm. The under-eye region has a high tendency to develop premature ageing signs like fine lines, darkness, puffiness, and hollowness. Under-eye hollows develop when fat pads under the eyes and around the upper cheek area are depleted due to ageing or even weight loss. The absence of fat pads makes the underlying muscles and vast network of blood vessels very prominent, resulting in unsightly under-eye shadows. If left uncorrected, patients with extreme under eye hollows may look gaunt or older than their chronological age.
What is Belotero?
Belotero is a range of non-permanent and biodegradable injectable hyaluronic acid-based gel that is formulated and produced by Merz Pharmaceuticals. These soft tissue fillers cont ...
What are forehead wrinkles?
As the name suggests, forehead wrinkles are prominent skin creases that appear on the forehead. As age progresses, many patients tend to experience forehead lines as that region is actively involved in various facial movements like frowning.
What are the causes of forehead wrinkles?
Most of the time, patients will notice the appearance of forehead lines during facial movements. These aesthetic imperfections are classified as dynamic lines which occur due to contractions of muscles underneath the skin. Unfortunately, these dynamic lines get permanently etched on the skin due to ageing. The ageing process of the skin is controlled by 2 major aspects which are intrinsic and extrinsic ageing factors. Intrinsic ageing is caused by genetic signalling which results in the reduction of dermal cell turnover rate. It is also the cause for many skin maintenance processes like desquamation—the regular shedding on old dermal cells—to be halted. Unfortun ...