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Where to Inject Botox For Glabellar Lines & How Many Units Are Needed?

Where to Inject Botox For Glabellar Lines & How Many Units Are Needed?
June 8th 2018
What are glabellar lines? Glabellar lines, also known as frown lines, are the short vertical wrinkles that appear between the eyebrows and extend upwards towards the central forehead for about a centimetre. These lines are caused by a combination of ageing and continuous facial movements. Initially, glabellar lines are dynamic wrinkles that only appear when a person is frowning. The muscles underneath the skin i.e. the corrugator superciliaris, the procerus, and the depressor supercilii move dynamically during facial expressions causing the appearance of the furrows. However, the inevitable intrinsic ageing process signalled by genetic makeup causes a rapid decline in the repair and replication of dermal cells. The intrinsic ageing process is also exacerbated by extrinsic skin aging factors like cigarette smoking, excessive sun exposure, and pollution. Patients will then start noticing permanent wrinkles on the forehead as early as the mid 20’s. If left untreated, glabellar li ...

Botulinum Toxin (Botox) for Blepharospasm (Droopy Eyelids) Treatment

Botulinum Toxin (Botox) for Blepharospasm (Droopy Eyelids) Treatment
June 8th 2018
What is blepharospasm? Blepharospasm, commonly known as droopy eyelids, is a neurological condition characterised by abnormal, involuntary, and forcible twitching of the eyelids. While the basal ganglion—a cluster of neurons located in the brain—is responsible for controlling the movements of the eyelids, an abnormal function of the basal ganglion may actually lead to droopy eyelids. Though the exact cause remains unclear, some researchers also believe that blepharospasm is caused by other triggers such as stress, lack of sleep, and excessive caffeine intake. Most patients experience this eye condition without any initial warning symptoms. It may begin with a gradual increase in blinking or eye irritations. Besides that, some patients may even experience sensitivity to bright light, fatigue, or emotional tension prior to a full-blown droopy eyelid condition. As blepharospasm progresses, these symptoms increase in frequency and severity, sometimes causing facial spasms. Tho ...

Similarities and Differences Between Tetracaine Vs Lidocaine Creams

Similarities and Differences Between Tetracaine Vs Lidocaine Creams
June 6th 2018
What is tetracaine cream? Tetracaine, sometimes known as amethocaine, is an ester-type local anaesthetic agent that is used to temporarily paralyse a particular area before proceeding with medical procedures. It produces local anaesthesia by blocking the sodium ion channels needed for the initiation and conduction of the nerve impulses. Tetracaine is present in various over-the-counter (OTC) products such as burn creams that provide pain relief and numbing sensations. What is lidocaine cream? Lidocaine—also known as xylocaine and lignocaine—is a medication that is used to induce temporary local anaesthesia on proposed treatment areas before a medical procedure can be conducted. This amide-based local anaesthetic agent works by blocking the activity of fast voltage gated sodium channels. Hence, this medication not only prevent the conduction of nerve impulses to the brain, it also stops the production of pain signals in the first place. It is also used as an active ingr ...