What is hyperpigmentation?
Freckles, dark spots, acne scars—while they are not medically threatening, these marks are often seen as a defect to a person’s aesthetic. These are commonly categorised as hyperpigmentation, a condition where darkening spots appear on the skin, especially in the facial region.
Types and causes of hyperpigmentation
Under the skin, the cells melanocytes produce melanin. Its main function, other than providing colour to the skin and hair, is to absorb ultraviolet rays from the sun, so as to protect the skin. However, prolonged exposure will cause an excess of melanin in spots as the UV light overstimulates the melanocytes. Inflammation and skin injuries such as acne vulgaris may also trigger the formation of deposits which resides as stubborn brown patches on the complexion.
A common type hyperpigmentation that occurs among elderly people is known as age spots, liver spots, or lentigines. They are dark, irregular shaped brown patches. ...
What is Belotero?
Belotero is a range of temporary, synthetic, and biodegradable hyaluronic acid-based injectable fillers that is designed and manufactured by Merz Pharmaceuticals. These fillers are made of biotechnologically-produced hyaluronic acid molecules that are extracted and purified extensively. The hyaluronic acid particles are then cross-linked using 2 unique manufacturing technologies: Cohesive Polydensified Matrix (CPM) and Dynamic Cross-Linking Technology (DCLT). The resulting soft tissue implants have the perfect mix of cohesivity, elasticity, and plasticity.
There are 5 variations of fillers in this Belotero range:
Belotero Hydro: This filler is composed of 18mg/mL of cross-linked hyaluronic acid.
Belotero Soft: This filler is composed of 20mg/mL of cross-linked hyaluronic acid.
Belotero Balance: This filler is composed of 22.5mg/mL of cross-linked hyaluronic acid.
Belotero Intense: This filler is composed of 25.5mg/mL of cross-linked hyaluronic acid.
What is Tetracaine?
Tetracaine is a type of amino ester local anaesthetic, which has a longer duration of action than benzocaine and lidocaine. It was released for medical use in 1941 and was hailed by the World Health Organization as 1 of the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. Local anaesthetics can be used for topical applications to numb the conjunctiva, skin, eardrum, and mucous membrane. Nowadays, it is rarely used for epidural anaesthesia or peripheral nerve blocks due to slow onset, potential toxicity in high doses, and profound motor blockade.
Tetracaine comes in a 0.5%, 1%, and 2% solution or as Niphanoid crystals. The crystal form is preferred because of the relative instability of tetracaine. A solution with 0.5% tetracaine hydrochloride is used as an ophthalmic solution for procedures requiring a rapid and short-acting topical anaesthesia.
Mechanism of Action
Tetracaine induces local anaesthesia by reversibly blocking the condu ...