What is glabella?
The glabella is the flat area between the eyebrows and above the nose. It may refer to the skin or the bone underneath. Rhytids that appear in this area are called glabellar lines and range from fine lines to deep furrows, slightly extending up the central forehead. Because these lines occupy a central position in the face, they attract the most attention. Glabellar lines are sometimes called frown lines.
Glabellar lines can easily make a patient appear angry, tired, anxious, or fearful. These rhytids are often deemed socially undesirable because they often wrongly reflect the actual mood of the individual. Contrary to popular belief, glabellar lines are not only prominent on aged skin; people in their mid-20s are also susceptible in developing these lines.
Causes of glabellar lines
These hyperfunctional lines may be dynamic or static. Initially, the lines only appear when frowning, scowling, and squinting or even when some ...
Cumulative effects of ageing create several changes to facial characteristics. Sagging skin is 1 of the many undesirable signs of ageing; together with atrophy and wrinkles, they form the ageing trilogy. The lower face and the neck are the areas where sagging skin is more predominant. Sagging in the neck manifests as loss of tension and tone and is due to loss of elasticity.
Causes of Sagging Skin
Intrinsic ageing is a natural part of the ageing process and it includes significant reduction in the production of collagen and elastin. These 2 structural proteins provide support and flexibility to connective tissues. Elastin, in particular, allows the skin to spring back into shape when stretched.
Some people are just predisposed to sagging skin. If you have family members that are prone to lines, wrinkles, and sagging skin at a younger age, there’s a chance that you will suffer the same problems.
The damaging r ...
What is Prilocaine?
Prilocaine is an amino amide type of local anaesthetic with a fast onset of action. It is pharmacologically similar to lidocaine and both can be combined for topical application (Emla cream) prior to a dermal filler injection. Although both are equally safe and effective anaesthetics, prilocaine’s onset of action is slower than lidocaine. However, the former is excreted more rapidly and has lower cardiotoxicity. Lidocaine is widely used in the US, while European countries seem to prefer Prilocaine.
Mechanism of Action
Amide-type local anaesthetics like prilocaine and lidocaine relieve pain by interfering with nerve excitation and conduction. It works by blocking sodium (Na+) current through direct interaction with voltage-gated Na+ channels. The injectable form of prilocaine is often used in dentistry, while a combination of lidocaine and prilocaine is also formulated in topical preparation for dermal anaesthesia. It is rapidly metabolised in the liver a ...