What is the anatomy of the lips?
Not only are the lips responsible for eating, they are also very important for proper speech articulation and numerous facial expressions. Compared to other parts of the face which could consist of up to 16 layers of skin, the lips are only made of a meagre 3 to 5 layers of skin. The very thin layer of skin combined with extensive network of blood supply as well as nerve cells underneath contribute to the heightened tactile sensation of the lips. The lips are also a vital erogenous zone, which plays a huge role in intimacy.
What are the common lip deformities faced by patients?
While the shape and size of lips are directly influenced by genetics, lifestyle habits and ethnicity, they can also fluctuate based on age. Most patients notice that their lips thin as they grow older and this could be due to the fact that the ageing process cause a sharp decline in the repair and growth of numerous cells (e.g. hyaluronic acid, collagen, etc.) in the lips. ...
What is lidocaine (xylocaine, lignocaine)?
Lidocaine is a type of medication that is used to induce temporary numbness in localised areas in preparation for medical procedures. This is an amide-type anaesthetic agent is sometimes referred to as xylocaine or lignocaine.
How are pain sensations produced by the body?
Pain can be caused by a myriad of factors and nociceptors are differentiated based on the type of stimuli that they detect. These include thermal, mechanical, and chemical. Silent pain receptors are activated when there is any inflammation or tissue injuries. Following exposure to harmful stimuli (e.g. heat, incisions that break the skin’s surface, corrosive chemicals, etc.), tissues become damaged and appropriate pain receptors get activated. Electrical signals are then generated and propagated along the nerve cells to the spinal cord and the brain for processing. These pain sensations will then quickly alert the body of dangerous situations and prevent further ...
What is an under-eye hollow?
The under-eye area—also known as the tear trough—is the region extending downwards and outwards from the inner corner of the eye. The skin in this region is very delicate as it consists of a very thin layer of skin at just <1mm. The under-eye region has a high tendency to develop premature ageing signs like fine lines, darkness, puffiness, and hollowness. Under-eye hollows develop when fat pads under the eyes and around the upper cheek area are depleted due to ageing or even weight loss. The absence of fat pads makes the underlying muscles and vast network of blood vessels very prominent, resulting in unsightly under-eye shadows. If left uncorrected, patients with extreme under eye hollows may look gaunt or older than their chronological age.
What is Belotero?
Belotero is a range of non-permanent and biodegradable injectable hyaluronic acid-based gel that is formulated and produced by Merz Pharmaceuticals. These soft tissue fillers cont ...