What are glabellar lines?
Glabellar lines, also known as frown lines, are the short vertical wrinkles that appear between the eyebrows and extend upwards towards the central forehead for about a centimetre. These lines are caused by a combination of ageing and continuous facial movements. Initially, glabellar lines are dynamic wrinkles that only appear when a person is frowning. The muscles underneath the skin i.e. the corrugator superciliaris, the procerus, and the depressor supercilii move dynamically during facial expressions causing the appearance of the furrows. However, the inevitable intrinsic ageing process signalled by genetic makeup causes a rapid decline in the repair and replication of dermal cells. The intrinsic ageing process is also exacerbated by extrinsic skin aging factors like cigarette smoking, excessive sun exposure, and pollution. Patients will then start noticing permanent wrinkles on the forehead as early as the mid 20’s. If left untreated, glabellar lines can make patients look older and angry.
How to treat glabellar lines?
The best way to treat glabellar lines is by injecting botulinum toxin into the area. Botulinum toxin is a highly potent muscle-relaxing injectable that is extracted from Clostridium bacteria cultures that are left to ferment. This strain of bacteria is found abundantly in environmental settings like lakes and ponds. The neurotoxin is used in the medical industry to temporarily relieve painful muscle contractions and spasms. Botox, which is 1 of the leading brands of botulinum toxin type A, has been approved by various regulatory agents for the temporary treatment of moderate to severe glabellar lines in adults younger than 65 years of age.
Where to inject Botox and how many units are needed?
Botox comes in the form of a white powder that must be reconstituted with preservative-free saline solution (0.9%) sodium chloride solution before it can be administered into the areas with aesthetic imperfections. Once the patient’s medical history and the severity of their frown lines have been assessed, physicians can then administer 2 injections in each corrugator muscle and 1 injection in the procerus muscle for a total dose of 20 units. The maximum dosage is 5 units in each injection site. Following procedure, the muscles are temporarily paralysed, and the frown lines remain smooth for up to 4 months.